East West division of Himalayas

East West division of Himalayas


Kashmir Himalayas            Kumaon Himalayas          Nepal Himalayas                Sikkim Himalaya           Assam Himalayas

( Punjab Himalayas )    <      [ satlaj – kali]             <        [ Kali – Kosi]           <        [ Kosi – Teesta]      <    [ Teesta- Dihang] [ Indus – sutlaj]                                                                                                                                                    (Brahmaputra)


Classification of Himalayas on the basis of Geographic Location

  • Punjab Himalayas / Kashmir Himalaya / Himachal Himalaya Between the Indus and Sutlej
  • Kumaon Himalayas Between Sutlej and Kali rivers
  • Nepal Himalayas Between Kali and Tista rivers
  • Assam Himalayas Between Tista and Dihang rivers


Kashmir Himalayas


  • Karakoram , ladakh , Zaskar , Pir panjal , Dhaula dhar
  • Kashmir Himalayas also known as Punjab Himalayas and Himachal Himalayas .
  • Zozila pass situated between Kashmir and ladakh .
  • In this region have many vallelies , Dun and lakes .
  • The general elevation falls westwards.
  • All the major rivers of Indus river system flow through Punjab Himalayas.

Kumaon Himalayas

  • Kumaon Himalayas is Located in uttarakhand .
  • The middle Himalayas discontinuous  ranges are present between Great Himalayas and shiwalik  – in western side called as Garwal Himalayas  and in eastern side its called as Kumaon Himalayas .
  • There are many peaks in this region like Nanda devi , Kamet , Badirinath , Kedarnath , Gangotri ( sourse of ganga) all peaks are found in southern side of Great Himalayas .
  • After deposition lakes becomes dry .When lakes are dry it called as Tal and that dry lakes are very fertile  so some cities are developed on these dry lakes  like – Nainital , Bhimtal etc.


Nepal Himalayas

  • Nepal Himalayas are the tallest section in all over the ranges in Himalayas .
  • Higher peaks in Nepal himalayas –
  • IN Great Himalayas—– Dhaulagiri , Annapurna , Mansalu , Evert , Makalu ( or kanchanjanga) .
  • Kathmandu valley – There are many river sources , which cross to tibet region and meets India.
  • Like Kali river ,Karnali river comes through India , Nepal border and meet into India called Ganga river.
  • Gandak aries in Nepal near Kathmandu
  • Kosi pass from Nepal and meet india in Bihar its also known as sorrow of bihar.

Sikkim Himalayas  

  • It’s a very small range Kosi to Teesta river.
  • Peak : kanchanjanga
  • Teesta is originated near kanchanjanga.
  • There is a very important pass that is ‘Jelep la pass’. This pass is a trijunction of India- China- Bhuta.

Assam Himalayas

  • Himalayas narrower .
  • Lesser Himalayas close to great Himalayas. Because the shiwalik rangae are almost disappear in this region of Himalayas .
  • There are important peaks like – Namcha Barwa , Kula kangrl.
  • There is a pass also knoen as Diphu pass ,that pass is located on the India , China , Myanmar trijunction .
  • Bengal Duar’s :- called Gateways of Himalayas, in this region uplifted in sudden way and it is very narrow.
  • Duar’s are hilly , weightier regions and High rainfall. Tea cultivation happened  In this regions.

“Duns” formation

  • Dunis a valley between the Himalayan foothills and the Siwalik Range to the south .
  • After lakes are dry out when river find weak rocks to cut across the mountain . dry rivers are called DUNS .
  • Dehradun between Shiwaliks and Masoorie range.

Karewas ( of Kashmir)

  • Karewas in Kashmir valley are some 367 meters thick.
  • Flat-topped terraces of Kashmir valley on flanks of Pir panjal. This region are very fertile . this fertile land are made up of clay , sand from old deltaic fans.
  • Now a days in this fertile land are use for cultivation of Apple , Saffron , Rice (stable food of kashmie).

Significance of Himalayas for India

Strategic significanceActs as a natural frontier of India with other countries (China, Pakistan, Afghanistan)
Climatic significance Prevent further northward movement of summer monsoon and also prevent cold northern winds from Siberia to enter into India
Agricultural significanceRivers from Himalayas deposits a lot of sediment on its foothold, from which are formed India’s most fertile agricultural grounds known as Northern plains
Economic significanceHuge hydro-electric power potential of Himalayan rivers + Himalayan timber + Himalayan Herbs & Medicinal plants
Tourism SignificanceComprises of Large ecological biodiversity, natural views & hill stations

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