Need of Eco- Sensitive Zones (ESZ’s)in Uttarakhand

Need of Eco- Sensitive Zones (ESZ’s)in Uttarakhand Ecologically Sensitive Areas (ESAs) have been identified and notified by the Indian Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) since 1989. Notifications declaring areas as ESAs are issued under the Environment (Protection) Act 1986. The clauses of the EPA which allow for the notification of ESAs hold the possibility … Read more

Disasters in the Uttarakhand Himalayan region and other Himalayan States

Disasters in the Uttarakhand Himalayan region and other Himalayan States Himalayas, as a region, have always been susceptible to disaster, due to the neo-tectonic mountain-building process, like earthquakes, landslides, floods, etc. The spread of reckless developmental activities has transformed many natural disasters into man-made events. Such calamities play a grave negative socio-economic role on the … Read more

Biogas- principle and process

Biogas- principle and process Principle of biogas production Biogas is generated when bacteria degrade biological material in the absence of oxygen, in a process known as anaerobic digestion. Since biogas is a mixture of methane (also known as marsh gas or natural gas, CH4) and carbon dioxide it is a renewable fuel produced from waste … Read more

Bt cotton and Bt brinjal

Bt cotton Bt cotton is an insect-resistant transgenic crop designed to combat the bollworm. Bt cotton was created by genetically altering the cotton genome to express a microbial protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. In short, the transgene inserted into the plant’s genome produces toxin crystals that the plant would not normally produce which, when … Read more

Biotechnology in environmental clean up process

Biotechnology in environmental clean up process Landfill Technologies Solid wastes account for an increasing proportion of the waste generated by urban societies. While a part of this volume consists of glass, plastics, and other non-biodegradable material, a considerable proportion of this is made of decomposable solid organic material, like food wastes from large poultry and … Read more

Polymers : Synthetic fibers (nylon and rayon), Polystyrene

Synthetic fibers (nylon and rayon) and polystyrene Synthetic fibers are made from raw materials such as petroleum, based on chemicals or petrochemicals. These materials are polymerized into a long, linear chemical with different chemical compounds and are used to produce various types of fibers. Synthetic fibers account for about half of all fiber usage, with … Read more

Properties and applications of petroleum products

Properties and applications of petroleum products Gases Gaseous refinery products include hydrogen, fuel gas, ethane, propane, and butane. Most of the hydrogen is consumed in refinery desulfurization facilities, which remove hydrogen sulfide from the gas stream and then separate that compound into elemental hydrogen and sulfur; small quantities of the hydrogen may be delivered to … Read more

Efforts of government in promoting biotechnology in the country

Efforts of government in promoting biotechnology in the country DBT and Biotech parks The remarkable march of India into the world of biosciences and technological advances began in 1986. That year, government of india accepted the vision that unless India created a separate Department for Biotechnology, within the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of … Read more

Problems of Energy Crises

Energy crisis The energy crisis is the concern that the world’s demands on the limited natural resources that are used to power industrial society are diminishing as the demand rises. These natural resources are in limited supply. While they do occur naturally, it can take hundreds of thousands of years to replenish the stores. Governments … Read more

Subscribe to UKPSC Notes

Never Miss any UKPSC important update!

Join 4,830 other subscribers