Diseases of plants caused by bacteria

Diseases of plants caused by bacteria Aster yellows Aster yellows,caused by a phytoplasma bacterium, affecting over 300 species of herbaceous broad-leafed plants. Aster yellows is found over much of the world wherever air temperatures do not persist much above 32 °C (90 °F). As its name implies, members of the family Asteraceae are vulnerable to … Read more

Diseases of plants caused by  viruses and their prevention

Diseases of plants caused by  viruses and their prevention Some of the same types of viruses that infect humans can also infect plants. Plants and humans do not transmit viruses to each other, but humans can spread plant viruses through physical contact. Most frequently, plants catch a cold when an insect or other small animal … Read more


Vermiculture Vermiculture means artificial rearing or cultivation of worms (Earthworms) and the technology is the scientific process of using them for the betterment of human beings. Vermicompost is the excreta of earthworm, which is rich in humus. Earthworms eat cow dung or farm yard manure along with other farm wastes and pass it through their … Read more


Piggery Pig farming is the raising and breeding of domestic pigs as livestock, and is a branch of animal husbandry. Pigs are farmed principally for food (e.g. pork, bacon, gammon) or sometimes skinned. Breeds of pigs The indigenous pig has been the basis used for pig production for a long period of time. It is … Read more

Economic Botany

Economic Botany The land and waters of the earth sustain a vast assemblage of plants upon which all other living forms are directly or indirectly dependent. These autotrophs have the remarkable property of capturing the inexhaustible energy of the sun to synthesise organic compounds which are vital for the existence of all life on earth. … Read more

Diseases of plants caused by fungi

Diseases of plants caused by fungi Early Blight of Potato The disease is quite common in India, and occurs on about three week old plants. Since this blight occurs earlier than the ‘late blight’ of potato (caused by Phytophthora infestans), it is called ‘early blight.’ Prevention Measures: Field sanitation and rotation of crops can minimize … Read more


Chromosomes Chromosome, the microscopic threadlike part of the cell that carries hereditary information in the form of genes. A defining feature of any chromosome is its compactness. For instance, the 46 chromosomes found in human cells have a combined length of 200 nm (1 nm = 10− 9 metre); if the chromosomes were to be … Read more

Endocrine System

Endocrine glands: harmone and their function The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones, chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs. These hormones regulate the body’s growth, metabolism (the physical and chemical processes of the body), and sexual development and function. The hormones … Read more

Excretory System

Excretory System Introduction If you exercise on a hot day, you are likely to lose a lot of water in sweat. Then, for the next several hours, you may notice that you do not pass urine as often as normal and that your urine is darker than usual. Do you know why this happens? Your … Read more

Nervous system of human being

Nervous system of human being The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It is essentially the body’s electrical wiring. Structurally, the nervous system has two components: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. According to the … Read more

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