Conductors, semiconductors and insulators

Conductors, semiconductors and insulators Materials are classified as conductors, insulators, or semiconductors according to their electric conductivity. The classifications can be understood in atomic terms. Electrons in an atom can have only certain well-defined energies, and, depending on their energies, the electrons are said to occupy particular energy levels. In a typical atom with many … Read more

Energy security

Energy security Energy security can be defined as “the uninterrupted availability of energy sources at an affordable price”. Energy security has many dimensions: long-term energy security mainly deals with timely investments to supply energy in line with economic developments and sustainable environmental needs. Short-term energy security focuses on the ability of the energy system to … Read more

Introduction to solar appliances viz Solar cell, solar cooker, water heater etc.

Sunlight is Earth’s most abundant energy source and is delivered free of charge. Indeed, the energy from sunlight reaching the land surface of the earth  is thousands of times greater than the world’s current total annual consumption of energy. Yet harnessing sunlight’s energy content directly—rather than indirectly in fossil fuels, wind, or hydroelectric power—makes only a small contribution to humanity’s energy … Read more

Surface tension

Surface tension Surface tension, property of a liquid surface displayed by its acting as if it were a stretched elastic membrane. This phenomenon can be observed in the nearly spherical shape of small drops of liquids and of soap bubbles. Because of this property, certain insects can stand on the surface of water. A razor … Read more

Domestic power supply and safety for handling electricity

Power distribution Primary distribution lines contain a distribution transformer present in the locality of the clientele. Primary distribution ranges from 4 to 35-kilo Voltage. Only industries can directly feed the transmission line. Most average consumers are connected to a transformer that brings down the voltage to a useable level. The distribution network for the primary … Read more


  Holography Holography, means of creating a unique photographic image without the use of a lens. The photographic recording of the image is called a hologram, which appears to be an unrecognizable pattern of stripes and whorls but which—when illuminated by coherent light, as by a laser beam—organizes the light into a three-dimensional representation of … Read more

Elementary idea of LASER

Elementary idea of LASER Laser, a device that stimulates atoms or molecules to emit light at particular wavelengths and amplifies that light, typically producing a very narrow beam of radiation. The emission generally covers an extremely limited range of visible, infrared, or ultraviolet wavelengths. Many different types of lasers have been developed, with highly varied … Read more

Electric power plant

Electric power plant Electricity is produced at a an electric power plant. Some fuel source, such as coal, oil, natural gas, or nuclear energy produces heat. The heat is used to boil water to create steam. The steam under high pressure is used to spin a turbine. The spinning turbine interacts with a system of … Read more


Microscope Microscope, instrument that produces enlarged images of small objects, allowing the observer an exceedingly close view of minute structures at a scale convenient for examination and analysis. Although optical microscopes are the subject of this article, an image may also be enlarged by many other wave forms, including acoustic, X-ray, or electron beam, and … Read more

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