Polymers : Synthetic fibers (nylon and rayon), Polystyrene

Synthetic fibers (nylon and rayon) and polystyrene Synthetic fibers are made from raw materials such as petroleum, based on chemicals or petrochemicals. These materials are polymerized into a long, linear chemical with different chemical compounds and are used to produce various types of fibers. Synthetic fibers account for about half of all fiber usage, with … Read more

Properties and applications of petroleum products

Properties and applications of petroleum products Gases Gaseous refinery products include hydrogen, fuel gas, ethane, propane, and butane. Most of the hydrogen is consumed in refinery desulfurization facilities, which remove hydrogen sulfide from the gas stream and then separate that compound into elemental hydrogen and sulfur; small quantities of the hydrogen may be delivered to … Read more

Problems of Energy Crises

Energy crisis The energy crisis is the concern that the world’s demands on the limited natural resources that are used to power industrial society are diminishing as the demand rises. These natural resources are in limited supply. While they do occur naturally, it can take hundreds of thousands of years to replenish the stores. Governments … Read more

Introduction to alkaloids (nicotine and cocaine)

Introduction to alkaloids (nicotine and cocaine) Alkaloids, any of a class of naturally occurring organic nitrogen-containing bases. Alkaloids have diverse and important physiological effects on humans and other animals. Well-known alkaloids include morphine, strychnine, quinine, ephedrine, and nicotine. Alkaloids are found primarily in plants and are especially common in certain families of flowering plants. More … Read more

Steroids and Cholesterol

Steroids Steroids are naturally made by our bodies in small amounts. They help to control many functions. But steroids can also be made artificially and used as drugs to treat different diseases, including cancer.  Steroids used to treat cancer are usually a type called corticosteroids. These are man made versions of the hormones produced by … Read more

Domestic power supply and safety for handling electricity

Power distribution Primary distribution lines contain a distribution transformer present in the locality of the clientele. Primary distribution ranges from 4 to 35-kilo Voltage. Only industries can directly feed the transmission line. Most average consumers are connected to a transformer that brings down the voltage to a useable level. The distribution network for the primary … Read more

Carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose and cellulose)

Carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose and cellulose) Carbohydrates (also called saccharides) are molecular compounds made from just three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) and disaccharides (e.g. sucrose) are relatively small molecules. They are often called sugars. Other carbohydrate molecules are very large (polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose). Carbohydrates are: a source of energy for the … Read more

Elementary idea of atomic structure

Atomic Structure In 1897 J.J. Thomson discovered electron as a constituent of atom. He determined that an electron had a negative charge and had very little mass as compared to that of the atom. Since an atom was found to be electrically neutral it was inferred that some source of positive charge must be present … Read more

Methods of preparing alcohols (Methanol and Ethanol)

Laboratory method of preparing alcohol Hydrolysis of Alkyl Halides This is a nucleophilic  substitution reaction. R-X + KOHaq → R-OH The method is not satisfactory as olefins are also formed as by-products. However better yields is obtained by using moist Ag2O or aqueous K2CO3. Tertiary butyl halides mainly gives alkene due to dehydrohalogenation. Hydration of Alkenes This … Read more

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