23.05.18 Uttarakhand (UKPCS) Current Affairs

INTERNATIONAL     26th BASIC Ministerial meeting of Environment Ministers in Durban   The 26th BASIC Ministerial Meeting of Environment Ministers was held in Durban, South Africa for co-operation to protect the climate for present and future generations.   The BASIC grouping is a bloc of four countries – Brazil, South Africa, India and China – … Read more 23.05.18 Uttarakhand (UKPCS) Current Affairs

Chauhan for UKPCS Mains

Origins According to the Rajput bards, Chauhan is one of the four Agnikula or ‘fire sprung’ clans who were created by the Gods in the anali kund or ‘fountain of fire’ on Mount Abu to fight against the Asuras or demons. Chauhan is also one of the 36 ruling races of the Rajputs. Agnikula origin … Read more Chauhan for UKPCS Mains


Shakas had set up their Kshsatraps in Mathura. The brahmi inscription s of Mora(Mathura ) is associated with Sakas. The Sakas conquered the area of Mathura over Indian kings around 60BCE. Some of their satraps were Hangamasha and Hagana, who were in turn followed by the Saka Great Satrap Rajuvula. The Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions … Read more Sakas

Post Mauryan period- Political, Social, Economic, Religious and Cultural life during Kushana

The Kushanas: Short introduction In the early 2nd century BC, a tribe on the Central Asian frontier of China called Hsiung-nu defeated a neighboring one known as Yueh-chih. After more conflict, the survivors of the Yueh-chih were dislocated west, passing down the Ili river valley and along the southern shore of lake Issyk Kul. This … Read more Post Mauryan period- Political, Social, Economic, Religious and Cultural life during Kushana

Preparation of nitrogen

  Preparation of nitrogen Nitrogen is found in both free and combined states. It occupies 78.07% by volume. Nitrogen can be prepared: By heating copper in air: Firstly, air is passed through lime water and then concentrated sulphuric acid to make the air free from carbon dioxide and moistures respectively. The air contains only nitrogen … Read more Preparation of nitrogen


Ore An ore is a special type of rock that contains a large enough amount of a particular mineral (usually a metal) to make it economically practical to extract that mineral from the surrounding rock. Not all minerals are found in a large enough amount in one location to make it worth it to remove the ore … Read more Ore


Minerals Minerals are defined as solid, inorganic, naturally occurring substances with a definite chemical formula and general structure. Almost all chemical elements in the Earth’s crust are associated with at least one mineral. They vary in color, hardness, density, crystal form, crystal size, transparency, composition, location, and abundance. Some minerals are radioactive (uranophane), while others … Read more Minerals

Metallurgy of Copper

  Metallurgy of Copper Copper Mining: The commonest ore used in the extraction of copper is Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) also known as Copper Pyrites and other such sulfides. The percentage of copper in the actual ore is too low for direct extraction of copper to be viable. The concentration of ore is required and it is done by the Froth … Read more Metallurgy of Copper

Metallurgy concentration, roasting, smelting

Metallurgy concentration, roasting, smelting Roasting It is a process wherein the ore is heated either alone or with some other material in excess of air below the fusion point of the ore. Usually, this method is used for sulphide ores. In roasting, definite chemical changes take place to form oxide or chloride of the metal. … Read more Metallurgy concentration, roasting, smelting

Refining of ores Metallurgy

 Refining of ores Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy is the process of obtaining metals from ores. It may be defined as the processes which are involved in the extraction of metals from their ores and then refining them for use are known as metallurgy. Steps of Metallurgy: Metals can be extracted from their ores by following processes: Enrichment of … Read more Refining of ores Metallurgy

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