Uttarakhand :Drainage system


Alaknanda :

The Alaknanda rises at the confluence and feet of the Satopanth and Bhagirath Kharak glaciers in Uttarakhand. It meets the Bhagirathi river at Devprayag after flowing for approx. 229 km through the Alaknanda valley. Its main tributaries are the Mandakini, Nandakini, and Pindar rivers. The Alaknanda system drains parts of Chamoli, Tehri, and Pauri districts. The Alaknanda River is a tributary of the Ganges River that begins at the confluence of the Satopanth and Bhagirath Kharak glaciers in Uttarakhand. It merges with the Bhagirathi river near Devprayag. The Alaknanda is a Himalayan river in the state of Uttarakhand, India that is one of the two headstreams of the Ganges, the major river of Northern India and the holy river of Hinduism. The other headstream, Bhagirathi, which is longer, is the source stream.

Bhagirathi :

The Bhagirathi is a turbulent Himalayan river in the state of Uttarakhand, India, that is the source stream of the Ganges—the major river of the Gangetic plain of Northern India and the holy river of Hinduism. The headwaters of the Bhagirathi are formed in the region of the Gangotri and Khatling glaciers in the Garhwal Himalaya. From its source, the river flows for about 700 km (435 mi) before meeting the Alaknanda river at an elevation of 475 m (1,558 ft) in the town of Devprayag. Downstream of this confluence, considered holy by Hindus, the river is known as the Ganga or Ganges. The controversial Tehri dam lies at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and its tributary, the Bhilangna, near Tehri.

Ghori Ganga :

The Ghori Ganga is a river in the Munsiyari tehsil of the Pithoragarh District, part of the state of Uttarakhand in northern India. Its source is the Milam Glacier, just northeast of Nanda Devi. It is also fed by glaciers and streams flowing from the eastern slopes of the east wall of the Nanda Devi Sanctuary, and those flowing west from the high peaks of Panchchuli, Rajramba, and Chaudhara, including the Ralam Gad and the Pyunsani Gadhera. The Kalabaland-Burfu Kalganga glacier system also flows into the Ghori Ganga Valley from the east.

Kali River :

The Kali River originates from the Greater Himalayas at Kalapaani at an altitude of 3600 m, in the Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand, India. The river is named after the Goddess K?l? whose temple is situated in Kalapaani near the Lipu-Lekh pass at the border between India and Tibet. On its upper course, this river forms India’s continuous eastern boundary with Nepal. The River Kali is known as River Sharda, when it reaches in the plains of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. The Kali River joins with the Gori Ganga at Jauljibi, a place famous for its annual trade fair. It the joins with the River Karnali and adopts a new name River Sarayu in Bahraich district till it meets with River Ganges. The area around Pancheshwar is called ‘Kali Kumaon’. Kali descends in plains and called by the name of Sharda. The Pancheswar Dam, a joint venture with Nepal for irrigation and hydro-electric power generation will soon be constructed on the Sarayu or River Kali disambiguation needed. The Tanakpur Hydroelectric Project (120MW)was commissioned in April 1993 by the Uttarakhand Irrigation Department, with a Barrage on the Sharda river near the town of Tanakpur in the district of Champawat. The Kali River is the part of the Ganges River System. In 2007, the river

became the focus of media attention, due to the Kali river goonch attacks.

Pindar River :

The Pindar River is a river in Uttarakhand, India. It emerges from the Pindari Glacier and flows into the Alaknanda River at Karanprayag. The river, in its initial course, flows through sedimentary rocks. Further to the south, it meanders through quarts schist. Granite is found in abundance in this area. The Pindar river has cut a gorge in thick glacial deposits up to nearly 10 km, resulting in the formation of spacious glacial terraces spread on both sides of the gorge. Further down, from Phurkia up to Khati, places en route to the Pindari Glacier, there are numerous waterfalls, hanging valleys and tremendous rolls cliffs as the one of at Dwali.

Ramganga :

Ramganga West river originates from Doodhatoli ranges in the district of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand state of India. The river Ramganga flows to south west from Kumaun Himalaya. It is a tributary of the river Ganga, originates from the high altitude zone of 800m-900m. Ramganga flows by the Corbett National Park near Ramnagar of Nainital district from where it descends upon the plains. Bareilly city of Uttar Pradesh is situated on its banks. There is a dam across this river at Kalagarh for irrigation and hydroelectric generation. An annual festival of Ganga Dassahra is organized on its banks annually during the months of September and October at Chaubari village near Bareilly.

Sarayu :

The Sarayu is a river that flows through what are now the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. This river is of ancient significance finding mentions in Vedas and Ramayana. It is often considered to be synonymous with the modern Ghaghara river or as a tributary of it. The Rivers Karnali and Mahakali join in the Bahraich District and are known as Sarayu River. The tributary Mahakali also known as the River Sharda in Western Uttar Pradesh area and the same river is known as River Kali in Uttarakhand. The River Sharda is the Indian International Border with Nepal in the Pilibhit and Lakhimpur Kheri Districts. On Ram Navami, the festival that celebrates the birthday of Lord Rama, thousands of people take a dip in the sacred river Sarayu at Ayodhya.

The Ganga :

The Ganges is one of the major rivers of the Indian subcontinent, flowing east through the Gangetic Plain of northern India into Bangladesh. The 2,510 km (1,560 mi) river rises in the western Himalayas in the Uttarakhand state of India, and drains into the Sunderbans delta in the Bay of Bengal. It has long been considered a holy river by Hindus and worshiped as the goddess Ganga in Hinduism. It has also been important historically: many former provincial or imperial capitals (such as Patliputra, Kannauj, Kara, Allahabad, Murshidabad, and Calcutta) have been located on its banks. The Ganges Basin drains 1,000,000-square-kilometre (390,000 sq mi) and supports one of the world’s highest density of humans. The average depth of the river is 52 feet (16 m), and the maximum depth, 100 feet (30 m). The many symbolic meanings of the river on the Indian subcontinent were spoken to in 1946 by Jawaharlal Nehru in his Discovery of India, The Ganges, above all is the river of India, which has held India’s heart captive and drawn uncounted millions to her banks since the dawn of history. The story of the Ganges, from her source to the sea, from old times to new, is the story of India’s civilization and culture, of the rise and fall of empires, of great and proud cities, of adventures of man.

Yamuna :

The Yamuna is the largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height 6,387 mtrs., on the south western slopes of Bandarpoonch peaks, in the Lower Himalayas, it travels a total length of 1,376 kilometers (855 mi) and has a drainage system of 366,223 sq.km, 40.2% of the entire Ganga Basin, before merging with the Ganges at Triveni Sangam, Allahabad, the site for the Kumbha Mela every twelve years. It crosses several states, Uttarakhand, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, passing by Himachal Pradesh and later Delhi, and meets several of its tributaries on the way, including Tons, its largest and longest tributary, Chambal, which has its own large basin, followed by Sindh, the Betwa, and Ken. Most importantly it creates the highly fertile alluvial, ‘Yamuna-Ganga Doab’ region between itself and the Ganges in the Indo-Gangetic plain. Nearly 57 million people depend on the Yamuna waters. Just like the Ganges, the Yamuna too is highly venerated in Hinduism and worshipped as goddess Yamuna, throughout its course. In Hindu mythology, she is the daughter of Sun God, Surya, and sister of Yama, the God of Death, hence also known as Yami and according to popular legends, bathing in its sacred waters frees one from the torments of death.

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