Forest types in India are classified by Champion and Seth into sixteen types.


Tropical Wet evergreen forests

are found along the Western Ghats, the Nicobar and Andaman Islands and all  along the north-eastern region.

It is characterized by tall, straight evergreen trees.

The trees in this forest form a tier pattern:

Beautiful fern of various colours and different varieties of orchids grow on the trunks of the trees.

Among the following States, which one has the most suitable climatic conditions for the cultivation of a large variety of orchids with minimum cost of production, and can develop

Tropical Semi-evergreen forests

found in the Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and the Eastern


Such forests have a mixture of the wet evergreen trees and the moist

deciduous trees. The forest is dense

Tropical Moist deciduous forests

found throughout India except in the western and the north -western regions.

The trees are tall, have broad trunks, branching trunks and roots to hold them firmly to the ground.

These forests are dominated by sal and teak, along with mango, bamboo, and rosewood.

Littoral and swamp

found along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the delta area of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.

They have roots that consist of soft tissue so that the plant can breathe in the water.

Tropical Dry deciduous forest

The northern part of the country except in the North-East. It is also found in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. The canopy, of the trees does not normally exceed 25 metres.

The common trees are the sal, a variety of acacia, and bamboo.

Tropical Thorn forests

This type is found in areas with black soil: North, West, Central, and South India. The trees do not grow beyond 10 metres. Spurge, caper, and cactus are typical of this region.

Tropical Dry evergreen forest

Dry evergreens are found along Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka coast. It is mainly hard-leaved evergreen trees with fragrant flowers, along with a few  deciduous trees.

Sub-tropical Broad-leaved forests

Broad-leaved forests are found in the Eastern Himalayas and the Western Ghats, along the Silent Valley.

There is a marked difference in the form of vegetation in the two areas.

In the Silent Valley, the  poonspar, cinnamon, rhododendron, and fragrant grass are predominant.

In the Eastern Himalayas, the flora has been badly affected by the shifting cultivation and forest fires.

There are oak, alder, chestnut, birch, and cherry trees. There are a large variety of orchids, bamboo and creepers.

Sub-tropical Pine forests

found in Shivalik Hills, Western and Central Himalayas, Khasi, Naga, and Manipur Hills.

The trees predominantly found in these areas are the chir, oak, rhododendion, and   pine as well as sal, amla, and laburnum are found in the lower regions.


Sub-tropical Dry evergreen forests

hot and dry season and a cold winter. It generally has evergreen trees with shining

leaves that have a varnished look.

found in the Shivalik Hills and foothills of the Himalayas up to a height of 1000 metres.

Montane Wet temperate forests

In the North, found in the region to the east of Nepal into Arunachal Pradesh, receiving a minimum rainfall of 2000 mm. In the North, there are three layers of    forests: the higher layer has mainly coniferous, the middle layer has deciduous trees such as the oak and the lowest layer is covered by rhododendron and champa.

In the South, it is found in parts of the Niligiri Hills, the higher reaches of Kerala.

The forests in  the northern region are denser than in the South. Rhododendrons and a

variety of ground flora can be found here.

Himalayan Moist temperate Forest

This type spreads from the Western Himalayas to the Eastern Himalayas. The trees

found in the western section are broad-leaved oak, brown oak, walnut,


Eastern Himalayas, the rainfall is much heavier and therefore the vegetation is also more lush and dense. There are a large variety of broad-leaved trees, ferri, and  bamboo.

Himalayan Dry temperate Forest

This type is found in Lahul, Kinnaur, Sikkim, and other parts of the Himalayas.

There are predominantly coniferous trees, along with broad-leaved trees such as the oak, maple, and ash. At higher elevation, fir, juniper, deodar, and chilgoza are found.


Sub alpine forest

Sub alpine forests extend from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh between 2900 to 3500 metres.

In the Western Himalayas, the vegetation consists mainly of juniper, hododendron, willow, and black currant.

In the eastern parts, red fir, black juniper, birch, and larch are the common trees.

Due to heavy rainfall and high humidity the timberline in this part is higher than that in the West.

Rhododendron of many species covers the hills in these parts.

Moist Alpine scrub

Moist alpines are found all along the Himalayas and on the higher hills near the Myanmar border. It has a low scrub, dense evergreen forest, consisting mainly of rhododendron and birch. Mosses and ferns cover the ground in patches. This region receives heavy snowfall.

Dry alpine scrub

Dry alpines are found from about 3000 metres to about 4900 metres. Dwarf plants predominate, mainly the black juniper, the drooping juniper, honeysuckle, and willow.

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