Climate Change


  • National Environmental Appraisal and Monitoring Authority has been setup



India UK

UK-India Business Climate Leaders Group has been constituted. Comprising of leading CEOs the group will work on synergystic business for carbon reduction and joint work to evolve national emission reduction strategies.

FDI could be streamlined into low carbon initiatives.


UNCTAD report says:

  1. Transnational corporations must be factored into global efforts to mitigate climate change since these corporations are the major emitters as well as innovators of low carbon technology.
  2. Instead of focusing on national targets the performance of individual firms should be evaluated and improved.
  3. Create a single global standard for corporate greenhouse gas emission disclosure. This would greatly boost the accuracy of emissions monitoring and correction.


Tianjin Climate change conference: October 3-9, 2010.

  • Developed countries to evolve strategy to start releasing the $30 bn allocated for CC finance fund during COP-15
  • Major divide between China and US over binding emission cuts issue
  • Divide between developing and developed countries over latter’s use of trade restrictions to limit the import of goods from the former which do not adhere to carbon emission norms.
  • Convergence on the issue of deforestation which is estimated to produce more carbon emission than transport. (REDD+ : Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation+)

Need for trans-boundary cooperation in climate change

  • At the SAARC summit at Thimpu in 2001, the South Asian nations agreed on a 16-point action plan for climate change, including measures like planting 10 million trees in the next five years and setting up inter-governmental marine, mountain and monsoon initiatives.
  • India and Bangladesh have decided to set up the Sundarbans Eco-System Forum to protect the 10000 sq. Km. Of mangroves that span both countries
  • India, China and Nepal agreed on a framework, the Kailash Sacred Landscape intitiative, to conserve the ecosystem of Mount Kailash.

Proposals to deal with Climate Change in India

  • It is necessary that technology lock-in should be avoided. The approach towards building cities and infrastructure can determine the amount of emissions. Data from three developed countries corroborates this point. While US has a per capita Co2 emisison of 19.5 tonnes (2006), UK has 9.1 and France 6.4. This is because France followed a policy of urbanisation whereby compact cities were encouraged.

National Mission on Climate Change

  • Climate change and agriculture
    • National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture
    • Rs 350 crore allocated for this scheme during the rest of the period of the 11th FYP
    • About 1 lakh farmers from 100 districts in various states will benefit from the on-farm demonstration of climate resilient technologies that will be undertaken under the scheme

Other important things


Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar – 1987. In 2008, Isha Foundation got it. By MoEF. Given to both individuals and organisations. First to Bombay Natural History Society.


National Natural Resources Management System: It is a national level inter-agency system for integrated natural resources management in the country. Supports the optimal utilization of the natural resources of the country by the use of remote sensing data.  DoSpace is the nodal agency. Estd. 1983.


Important Points Of Climate Change

  1. India’s per capita energy consumption (2006 figures) question is at 51 kg oil equivalent compared to the world average of 1818 kg oil equivalent. China has a per capita energy consumption of 1433 kg oil equivalent, which has been rapidly rising since 2002, and the US average of 7778 kg oil equivalent. The annual growth in India’s per capita energy consumption has been minimal.
  2. India’s submission to reduce the emission intensity of its economy by 20 to 25 per cent by 2020 can he bettered through these two options. India has already announced its national solar mission and an enhanced energy efficiency mission is in the works.

Point You Should Know

Carbon Storage and Sequestration Potential of India’s Forests and Tree Cover:-

  • India’s Forest Cover accounts for 20.6% of the total geographical area of the country as of 2005. Inaddition, Tree Cover accounts for 2.8% of India’s geographical area2 .
  • Progressive national forestry legislations and policies have transformed India’s forests into a significant net sink of CO2, From 1995 to 2005, the carbon stocks stored in our forests and trees have increased from 6,245 million tones (mt) to 6,662 mt, registering an annual increment of 38 mt of carbon or 138 mt of CO2

Mitigation Service by India’s Forest and Tree Cover:-

  • Estimates show that the annual CO2removals by India’s forest and tree cover is enough to neutralize 11.25% of India’s total GHG emissions (C02 equivalent) at 1994 levels.
  • This is equivalent to offsetting 100% emissions from all energy in residential and transport sectors; or 40% of total emissions from the agriculture sector. Clearly, India’s forest and tree cover is serving as a major mode of carbon mitigation for India and the world.

Carbon Stocks in the Future:-

  • India is one of the few developing countries in the world that is making a net addition to its forest and tree cover over the last two decades. Based on actual and projected trends of investments in the forestry sector, we present three scenarios of the future carbon stocks in the forest and tree cover of India.
  • Inthe first scenario, the carbon stocks in India’s forest and tree cover decrease at the rate of the world average and the total carbon stored in India’s forests in 2015 will decrease to 6,504 mt.
  • Inthe second scenario, the carbon stocks continue to increase at the historical rate of the last decade (0.6% p.a.). And the total carbon stored in India’s forests in 2015 will increase to 6,998 mt.
  • Inthe third scenario, the carbon stocks increase at a rate higher than the historical rate of increase and the total carbon stored in 2015 will increase to 7,283 mt. This is the path that we intend to tread in India.
  • Computations for the third scenario are based on a series policy initiatives on Sustainable Management of Forests (SMF) and A forestation and Reforestation (A&R), additional resources like Forest Restitution Fund5 with US$ 2.5b , a policy to include forestry related activities in the flagship employment scheme of the country and introducing new forestry related schemes on components such as capacity building in the forestry sector ..

Value of Mitigation

  • Putting a conservative value of US$ 5 per tonne of CO2locked in our forests; this huge sink of about 24,000 mt of CO2is worth US$ 120b, or Rs 6, 00,000 crores. Incremental carbon under scenario three will add a value of around US$ 1.2b, or Rs 6,000 cores every year to India’s treasury of forest sink, assuming a value of US$ 7 per tonne.




  • Government has notified rules for conservation and management of wetlands
    • Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2010
    • The rules specify activities that are harmful to wetlands and prohibit them.
    • Other activities such as harvesting and dredging could be carried out with prior permission from the authorities concerned.
  • Despite their immense importance, wetlands are one of the most degraded ecosystems globally. Over-exploitation of fish resources, discharge of industrial effluents, fertilizers and pesticides and uncontrolled siltation and weed infestation have taken the toll on these important water bodies

Coastal Regulation Zone

  • 1991
    • To regulate development activity on India’s coastline
    • The approach adopted by the first notification was to define the ‘High Tide Line’ and ‘Coastal Regulation Zone’ and thereafter specify the activities permitted and restricted in the vicinity of the CRZ
    • This regulated zone was further divided into four categories (CRZ 1-4) as per permitted land use
  • There have been about 25 amendments in this notification between 1991 and 2009
  • Rules re-issued in 2011
    • The difference between 1991 and 2011 rule is that the ‘no development zone’ has been reduced from 200 m from the high-tide line (HTL) to 100 m only to meet the increased demands of housing of fishing and other traditional coastal communities.
    • CRZ has been expanded to include territorial waters as protected zone
    • The concept of ‘hazard line’ has been introduced
    • Concept of classification of CRZ into four zones has been continued
  • CRZ I- ecologically sensitive areas such as mangroves, coral reefs, salt marshes, turtle nesting ground and the inter-tidal zone.
  • CRZ II- areas close to the shoreline, and which have been developed.
  • CRZ III- Coastal areas that are not substantially built up, including rural coastal areas.
  • CRZ IV- water area from LTL to the limit of territorial waters of India
    • A new category called areas requiring special consideration has been created which includes
      • CRZ areas of Greater Mumbai, Kerala and Goa
      • Critically vulnerable coastal areas such as Sunderbans
    • The list of exceptions to the rule prohibiting setting up of new industries and expansion of existing industries has been expanded




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