State Civil Services
The phrase ‘State Services’ refers to the civil service at state level. Civil service refers to the civilians employed by a government and distinguishes civilian pursuits in government from military. Civil service is a career service. Elective officials and employees of semi-government bodies do not form part of the civil service. An essential ingredient of the civil service concept is merit system. Merit system means selection based on ability as adjudged by an open competitive examination for civil service jobs. An independent recruiting agency is the hallmark of a merit system. The state level recruiting agencies are designated as State Public Service Commission.
State public services are recruited by the respective state governments through their public service commissions or other agencies. Members of these services are primarily meant for service in the states; only occasionally may a few members of some of the state services be borrowed by the Centre or some other organisations. States have well-organised services to cater to the needs of different sectors of governmental activity in non-technical and technical spheres. Typically, a state may have the following services: (1) Administrative Services; (2) Police Service; (3) Judicial Service; (4) Forest Service; (5) Agriculture Service; (6) Educational Service; (7) Medical Service; (8) Fisheries Service; (9) Engineering Service; (10) Accounts Service; (11) Sales Tax Service; (12) Prohibition and Excise Service and (1 3) Cooperative Service.
lnter-relationship and Inter-linkages
The personnel of the state services operate in subordination to the members of the All India Services. State services occupy lower positions in the administrative hierarchy than those held by the personnel of the All India Services. They constitute the middle level of the state administrative system. An attempt has been made to evolve – from out of those two sources of supply – a common stream. This has been achieved in two ways. One, by providing opportunities to the State Services’ personnel to rise to higher posts, which are normally reserved for the All India Services officers. Two, by inducting a certain percentage of the State SeAices’ personnel into the All India Services.
Recruitment in state civil services
Recruitment involves three separate but inter-connected steps.
- Attracting eligible candidates to apply for jobs. (Vacancies are brought to the notice of interested individuals through advertisements).
- Selecting candidates for jobs through an open competitive examination.
- Placing selected candidates in appropriate jobs, which also involves issuance of appointment letters to those concerned by a competent authority.
The first two steps are carried out by an independent recruiting agency. In the states, it is the Public Service Commissions, which perform these functions. The third step constitutes the responsibility of the government. It is, therefore, to be remembered that PSCs are only recruiting and recommendatory agencies; the power of appointment vests in the government.
Classification of services
Class I Services
Class 1 Services include a number of posts on a common time-scale of pay and some posts carrying salaries above the ordinary time-scale. Each departmental service ordinarily has a Class I cadre. I Recruitment to Class I posts is made on the basis of promotions from Class I1 services as well as by direct recruitment by State Public Service Commission.
Class 2 services
Class 2 services are generally of a specialised nature, although there are some generalists services as well in this category. These are subordinate civil service, subordinate police service, and the like. Class 2 services are lower in status and responsibility than those in Class I. These are, however, considered important enough to require that the authority for making appointments to them be vested in the state government itself.
Class 3 and 4 services
Class 3 services are divided into two categories: (i) subordinate executive services (including, for instance, naib tehsildars, sub-inspectors of police, deputy inspectors of education, and so on), and (ii) clerical services. Recruitment to these posts is made partly at the level of their Public Service Commissions and partly at the departmental or district heads’ level.
Class 4 services include persons performing manual work, skilled or unskilled. Posts falling under this categorv include those of neons. watchmen. drivers.
State public service commissions
Each state has its own Public Service Commission with functions similar to the UPSC. The State Public Service Commissions were constituted under the provisions of the Constitution of India. The major functions of the State Public Service Commissions are:
- To conduct examinations and recruitment for appointments to the services of the States;
- To advise on methods of recruitment to various Civil Services of the States;
- Advise on principles to be followed in making appointments to civil services of the States and granting promotions, transfers from one service to another, and the suitability of candidates for such appointments, promotions and transfers;
- Advice on all disciplinary matters affecting the government servants.
- The functions of the Commission are varied from State to State as per requirement.
Constitutional provisions governing the Public Service Commissions (PSCs) at the state level are given below:
- Article 315 of the Constitution provides for the establishment of PSCs. It stipulates that there shall be a PSC for the Union as well as a PSC for each state.
- Article 316 prescribes the composition of such Commissions. It also deliberates on the method of appointment of the Chairperson and members as well as their terms of office. While Article 316 stipulates what the normal tenure of a Chairperson or member shall be, Article 3 17 prescribes grounds and procedure for early termination of such tenure.
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