Govt. employment policy
Analysing and Improving Labour Market Data
Availability of detailed, reliable, and comprehensive information on the labour market is critical to meet the employment challenge through well-targeted policies and programmes. At present, the dearth of statistical data on the labour market in India poses serious constraints to employment planning and promotion. The employment challenge faced by an economy can be gauged from the number of jobs required to be created to absorb not only the new entrants to the labour force but also to clear the backlog of unemployment and address the problem of underemployment.
Synergy between different Sectors of the Economy
Employment creation is not restricted to one sector or policy. It covers various sectors and is impacted by various polices. In India, employment promotion is identified as one of the important milestones of various programmes. The National Employment Policy will ensure coordination and coherence across policy initiatives and programmes in different sectors.
Education and Skill Development
Educational and skill policies are increasingly seen by governments across the world as integral parts of broad economic strategies to develop economies and promote employment opportunities appropriate to changing needs of the economy. Skill-mismatch, formal skill training and re-training is seen as a significant issue for employability. The advent of automation, the growing importance of digital ecosystems and independent work, are challenging labour markets around the world while also creating new and better opportunities. The National Employment Policy will ensure that the education, training and skill development system is aligned with the changing requirements of the labour market. The contents of the NEP would stress on measures to ensure greater participation of the private sector in skill development and wider use of the apprenticeship programmes by all enterprises.
Improving Women’s Participation in the Economy
With just 27.4 percent women as compared to 75.5 percent men in 2015-16, the numbers of women in the workforce remain strikingly low compared to other developing countries. No single policy intervention will address the full range of constraints they face. The content of the NEP, in line with SDG 5 on Gender Equality, will focus on developing women’s human capital and capabilities and investing in their ability to adapt to changing labour markets; providing support for their care responsibilities; establishing gender-sensitive labour market regulations; and enhancing their voice and capacity for collective action.
Employment & Income in Agriculture
Improving livelihood opportunities and income of those engaged in agriculture is extremely important and would have an impact on the effort to end poverty in all its forms (SDG 1) and for reducing inequality (SDG 10) The contents of the NEP would incorporate new and innovative ways to get over the problem of land fragmentation, make farmers a participant in higher value addition and skilling rural youth in new technologies that can be incorporated in agriculture and agro-based industries.
Targeted Programmes for Employment Generation
Targeted Programmes for employment generation, particularly those that take the form of an Employment Guarantee Scheme create a role for the government in the provision of employment to all those willing and able to work, should the labour market not offer such employment. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in India has already achieved a significant breakthrough in providing a certain level of employment security, particularly to informal workers and strengthening public works. Efforts in the future, guided by the National Employment Policy, need to be aimed at ensuring that the rural unemployed find adequate employment on a more sustainable basis and there are increased opportunities for women and other socially disadvantaged groups.
Various schemes to reduce unemployment and underemployment
Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)
The Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was started in 20 selected districts in the country in 1976-77. Later on in 1980, the programme was extended to all the districts of the country. The scheme was funded by centre. The funds for the scheme are shared by centre and State Govt. on equal basis. The objective of the scheme is to create productive assets for the families in rural areas living below poverty line. Bank Loans are provided to create productive assets to take up self-employment activities. They include agriculture horticulture, animal husbandry, poultry and weaving etc.
Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP)
This programme was started in 1983. Its main objective was to provide 100 days of assured employment in a year to rural landless labour families. They were to be employed in -j creating community assets. This scheme was sponsored by Union Govt. In 1989, this J scheme was merged in JRY.
Small and Cottage Industries
Special measures have been taken by the Government to develop small and cottage industries with a view to removing poverty and unemployment. Large amount is being spent to promote self-employment.
Minimum Needs Programme (MNP)
Minimum Needs Programme was launched during fifth plan to raise the standard of living of the poor. The programme covers primary education, adult education, rural health, rural water supply, rural roads, rural electrification, rural housing and ecological improvement & urban slums.
Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)
Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) was launched on 1st April 1999. It is the single self employment programme for rural poor.
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS)
This scheme has been launched in Feb. 2006 in 200 rural districts of the country and will be extended to 600 districts throughout India. The main objective of this scheme is to provide at least 100 days of unskilled manual work to one person from each rural family at the minimum wage fixed by the State Govt. If the manual work is not provided to beneficiary within 15 days, he will be given unemployment allowance.