To deal with security, India has different forces that are specialized to deal with different security threat. Conventionally, forces were meant to be only Defence forces but with rising internal challenges and other threats related to border management, disaster management etc, various forces have come to the for. These forces and agencies in India at broad framework are
Security Forces and Agencies
- Armed Forces
- Paramilitary Forces
- Central Armed Police Forces
- Central Intelligence and Investigation
- Central Forensic Institute
- Other Institute
- State Armed Police Forces
They provide security against external threats and conventional warfare ie
To assert the territorial integrity of India.
- To defend the country if attacked by a foreign nation.
- To support the civil community in case of disasters (e.g. flooding).
- To participate in United Nations peacekeeping operations in consonance with India’s commitment to the United Nations Charter.
There are three Armed forces:
- Indian Army:The army’s main objective was to defend the nation’s frontiers. However, over the years, it has also taken up the responsibility of providing internal security, especially in insurgent-hit Kashmir and north-east.
- Indian Navy: The role of navy is to ensure that no hostile maritime power can degrade own national security and interests.
- Indian Air force:Mission of Air force is “Defence of India and every part thereof including preparation for defense and all such acts as may be conducive in times of war to its prosecution and after its termination to effective demobilisation. Its Primary objective being safeguarding the Indian territory in conjunction with other armed forces by defending Indian Air Space.
They assist Armed forces very closely and led by officers of Indian Armed forces. Previously term ‘Paramilitary forces’ was used to refer to variety of armed services that aid the operation of law enforcement agencies of India and Armed forces but in 2011 on request of army a new definition was adopted which excluded Central Armed Police forces. There are currently three Paramilitary forces:
- It guards Indo-Myanmar Border.
- Also engaged in internal security of North East states.
- Conduct counter insurgency operations in the north-east and other areas where deemed necessary, under control of the army.
- Act as penultimate interventionist force of the central government in internal security situation, under the control of army; when the situation goes beyond the control of central paramilitary operations
- Engaged in Counter terrorism
- Also provide close protection to VIPs along with SPG.
- Indian Coastal Guard: Emergence of the Coast Guard in India on 01 Feb., 1977 as a new service was the result of an awareness that had been growing for some time in the Government for the requirement to enforce National Laws in the waters under national jurisdiction and ensure safety of life and property at sea.
The Coast Guard in its present shape was formally inaugurated on 18 Aug 1978 as an independent armed force of the union with the enactment of the Coast Guard Act 1978 by the Parliament with its motto as `VAYAM RAKSHAMAH; which means `WE PROTECT’.
CENTRAL ARMED POLICE FORCES:
On the recommendation of Border Management Task Force which was constituted after Kargil war, provision was made for One Border One force and accordingly various forces were created. All these CAPF agencies function under the aegis of Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) of the Government of India.
1. Central Industrial Security Force (CISF):
- The CISF came into existence in 1969 with a modest beginning, having three battalions, to provide integrated security cover to the Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs).
CISF is currently providing security cover to nuclear installations, space establishments, airports, seaports, power plants, sensitive Government buildings and even heritage monuments.
2. Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB):
SSB was set up in early 1963 in the wake of the Indo-China conflict to inculcate feelings of national belonging in the border population and develop their capabilities for resistance through a continuous process of motivation, training, development, welfare programmes and activities in the then NEFA, North Assam, North Bengal, hills of Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, and Ladakh. The scheme was later extended to Manipur, Tripura, Jammu (1965), Meghalaya (1975), Sikkim (1976) border areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat (1989), Manipur, Mizoram and some more areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat (1988), South Bengal, Nagaland (1989) and Nubra Valley, Rajouri and Poonch district of Jammu and Kashmir (1991).
3.Border Security Force (BSF):
Established on 1st December, 1965, it is one of the Central Armed Police Forces. Its primary role is to guard India’s international borders during peacetime and also prevent trans-border crime. Like all Central Armed Police Forces of India, the BSF is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Home Affairs. It is one of the many law enforcement agencies of India.
4.Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF):
The Central Reserve Police Force came into existence as Crown Representative’s Police on 27th July, 1939. It became the Central Reserve Police Force on enactment of the CRPF Act on 28th December, 1949.
It is a reserve force to assist state police in law and order.
5.Indo Tibetan Border Police Force (ITBPF) :
ITBPF was raised on 24 Oct,1962.Presently, ITBP is deployed on border, guarding duties from Karakoram Pass in Ladakh so Jachep La in Arunachal Pradesh covering 3488 km of Indo-China Border and manning Border Outposts on altitudes ranging from 9000’ to 18700’ in the Western, Middle and Eastern Sector of the Indo-China Border.
ITBPF is a Specialized Mountain Force and most of the officers & men are professionally trained mountaineers and skiers. Being the first responder for natural disaster in the Himalayas, ITBPF has been carrying out numerous rescue and relief operations.
6.National Security Guard (NSG):
- The National Security Guard (NSG) was set up in 1984 as a Federal Contingency Deployment Force to tackle all facets of terrorism in the country.
- The NSG was modeled on the pattern of the SAS of the UK and GSG-9 of Germany. It is a task-oriented Force and has two complementary elements in the form of the Special Action Group (SAG) comprising Army personnel and the Special Ranger Group (SRG), comprising personnel drawn from the Central Para Military Forces / State Police Force.
7.Railway Protection Force(RPF):
- To protect Railway property.
- To do all conducive means for the free movement of the railways.
- Protection and safeguarding the passengers.
8.Special Protection Group (SPG):
It provides security cover to Prime minister, VVIPS and their immediate family members.
9.National Disaster Response Force (NDRF):
The National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is a disaster response agency under National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) created by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. It was established in 2009 in Delhi, for disaster management and specialised response to natural and man-made disaster.
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AND INVESTIGATIVE AGENCIES :
- Gather Intelligence from within India
- Execute counter Intelligence and counter terrorism operations
b) National Investigative Agencies (NIA) :
It is a federal agency established to combat terror in India. It acts as the Central Counter Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency. The agency is empowered to deal with terror related crimes across states without special permission from the states. NIA was created after the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks as the need for a central agency to combat terrorism was realised.
c) Research and Analysis Wing (RAW):
Formed in September, 1968. Its creation was necessitated post Sino-Indian War of 1962 and Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 which showed various gaps in intelligence gathering undertaken by Intelligence Bureau (which then handled both internal and external intelligence)
d) National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB):
To prepare an enabling IT environment – policy framework, guidelines, architecture, best practices for Police Forces throughout the country
To improve knowledge based pro-active policing with the use of IT for improving internal efficiency, effectiveness and public service delivery
To provide training in IT and Finger Print Science for capacity building in Police Forces
e) Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB):
To fight from Drug Trafficking on Pan India Level.
f) Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI):
Collection of intelligence about smuggling of contraband goods, narcotics, under-invoicing etc. through sources of India and abroad, including secret sources.
Analysis and dissemination of such intelligence to the field formations for action and working on such intelligence, where necessary.
g) Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI):
The CBI was established in 1941 as the Special Police Establishment, tasked with domestic security. It was renamed the Central Bureau of Investigation on 1st April, 1963. Its motto is “Industry, Impartiality, Integrity”. The CBI is under the control of Department of Personnel and Training of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. While analogous in structure to the FBI, the CBI’s powers and functions are limited to specific crimes by Acts (primarily the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946).
h)Central Forensic Institutes:
- Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CFSL)
- Directorate of Forensic Science
- Central Finger Print Bureau
- National Intelligence Grid:
It is an integrated intelligence grid which will link databases of several departments and ministries of Government of India as to gather comprehensive pattern of intelligence i.e 360 degree intelligence. First proposed in the aftermath of Mumbai Terrorist attack. NATGRID is a crucial initiative that will help plug our vulnerabilities by upgrading and enhancing our capability to detect and respond to such threats at the earliest possible time.
- Multi Agency Centre:
MAC is a multi-agency centre for Counter Terrorism whose mandate is to share terrorism related inputs on a day-to-day basis.