World Distribution of bauxite
The important bauxite producers are (their percentage in world’s production is given in bracket): Australia (31.34%), China (18.41%), Brazil (13.93%), Guinea (8.36%), Jamaica (3.98%), Russia (1.64%), Venezuela (2.39%), Surinam (1.99%), Kazakhstan (2.44%), Greece (1.09%), Guyana (0.60%) and Vietnam (0.01%).
Australia is the largest producer of bauxite in the world. It accounts for 31.34 per cent of the world’s production of bauxite and also has about 40 per cent of the bauxite reserves. The Cape York Peninsula, New South Wales and Western Australia are the main bauxite-producing provinces.
China accounts for 18.41 per cent of the world’s total bauxite production and ranks second in production. Hunan, Guichou and Sichuan are the main bauxite mining provinces.
Brazil is the third largest producer of bauxite in the world and contributes 13.93 per cent to world production. The central region is the main producing area.
India ranks 4th in bauxite production in the world and produces 11 per cent of the world production in 2009. Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat are the major producers of bauxite. Guinea produces more than 8 per cent bauxite of the world and ranks 5th in the world.
Jamaica is also a leading producer of bauxite, contributing about 4 per cent of the world’s output. Jamaica is also having large reserves of bauxite. The other bauxite-producing countries are Venezuela, Surinam, Kazakhstan, USA, Greece, Guyana, Indonesia, Hungary, France, Russia, Turkey, Malaysia, Ghana, Sierra Leone, British Guiana, etc.
World Distribution of coal reserves
China ranks first in the world in coal production. Nearly 38 per cent of world’s coal output is from China. All types of coal are found, including anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite. Although coal occurs in every province of China, but its greatest concentration is in Shanxi and Shaanxi (Shansi and Shensi).
The United States of America is the second largest producer of coal in the world. It produces about 17 per cent coal of the world.
India is the third largest coal-producing country in the world. Its production is 7.2 per cent of the total world production of coal.
Practically 97 per cent of the coal supplies of India are derived from the Gondwana rocks. Among the states, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and West Bengal are the main producers of coal.
Australia ranks 4th in coal production in the world and its contribution in world’s production is 6 per cent. In 2007, it produced 251 million metric tons of coal. The largest coal producer in Australia is New South Wales, which contributes more than half of the Australian production. The other notable coal-producing regions are Queensland, Victoria and Tasmania. Both bituminous coal and lignite are produced in Australia.
Russia is the fifth largest coal-producing country of the world. Its share in world production is 5 per cent. The main coal-producing areas are Kuznestsk basin, Ural-region, Moscow-Tula region, Pechora basin, Eastern Siberia and Northern Siberia. Kuznestsk basin is a coal region of southern Siberia and produces about 25 per cent of the country’s bituminous coal.
Poland is now an important coal-producing country not only of Europe but also of the world and ranks 9th in the world. It produces 2.5 per cent of the world’s coal output. The major coalfields of Poland are Upper Silesia, Krakuw and Dombrawa. Anthracite coal is mined in Walbrzych of Oder basin.
Germany is another main coal-producing country of Europe. Ruhr, Saar, Sexony and Silesia are the main coalfields of Germany. The Ruhr Region is having good quality of coking coal. The coal belt of this region is 65 km long and 16 km wide and it extends in the east and west of Ruhr. Saar Region is having bituminous coalfields. Its main deposits are in Rhineland. Saxony Coalfield is located in eastern part of Germany. Halle, Magdeburg and Leapzig are the main coalfields.
Kazakhstan is now considered to be an important coal-producing country. This country is believed to have huge reserves of unexploited coal. It is now the 9th largest coal-producing country in the world.