Vocational Education: As a tool of HR development
Human resource development, in short, means investment in human capital. Human capital means people can act as capital assets which yield a stream of economic benefits over their working life. An improvement in the mental capability, skill, and physical capacity of the people constitutes an increase in the human capital because this enables the human factor to produce more. Two types of expenditure can be called as investment in human capital. One is expenditure on education i.e., general education and technical training and the other is expenditure on the provision of health care services likes hospitals, medicines etc.
The basic objective behind development of human resources is to increase the productivity of labour. Productivity of labour can be raised either by more and more use of capital intensive tools and machines, and it can also be raised by imparting education both technical and nontechnical, to the laborers for skill-generation. Macaulay under the British regime gave a system of education to India which produced only clerks. But for improving the pace of capital formation, human resource development was essential, in the form of change in existing educational structure and system and by more expenditure on education.
The Planning Commission during the Eighth Plan approved an expenditure of Rs 21,217 crore for education which was 4.9 per cent of total plan of public sector outlay. The Ninth Plan however does not specify allocation to education. According to 1991 census, the literacy rate in our country is 52.11 per cent while in 1951 it was 16.67 per cent. According to World Development Report 1999/2000 adult male illiteracy rate was 33 per cent in India in 1997 as against 9 per cent in China, 6 per cent in Sri Lanka, 5 per cent in Philippines and 3 per cent in Thailand.
Elementary education especially universalization of free and compulsory education up to the age of 14, received a priority in the Eighth Plan. A national programme of midday meals was started in August 1995 to promote access, retention and nutritional care of primary school children.
During the Eighth-Plan, Operation Black Board (launched in 1987), National Programme of Nutritional Support (launched in August 1995), Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL), District Primary Education Programme (introduced in 1994), Bihar Education Project (launched in 1991), with a sharing cost from UNICEF, U.P Basic Education Project, Mahila Samakhya (launched in 1991) in. 10 districts of U.P, Gujarat and Karnataka etc. were all implemented.
For the realization of the goal of universalization of elementary education, the National Policy on Education had stressed on retention, participation and achievement rather than mere enrolment which is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for achieving the goal of universalization of education. Elementary education is a major thrust area during the Ninth-Plan.
Institutes, Programmes and Schemes for Imparting vocational Education for Human Resource development in india
Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)
The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) impart training and awards vocational certificates for the unorganized sectors. The list of such training has been given in Table 1. KVIC (established in April 1957) is a statutory body established by an Act of Parliament. It took over the work of former All India Khadi and Village Industries Board.
It has the main objective of generating employment; the other objective of producing saleable products; and the wider objective of creating self-reliance amongst the people and building up of strong rural community spirit.
- KVIC is assigned with the proper planning, promotion, organizational implementation of programmes for the development of Khadi and other village industries in rural areas in coordination with other agencies engaged in rural development and are also charged with the responsibility of encouraging and promoting research in the KVI sector.
- KVIC is also entrusted with the task of providing financial assistance to institutions engaged in rural development.
Tool Room & Training Centers (DC, MSME)
Govt. of India has set up a few Tool Room & Training Centers of large size involving estimated cost of over Rs. 50 crores each, in order to provide facilities for design and manufacture of tools. Govt. of India have decided to assist the State governments by setting up Mini Tool Room and Training Centers.
National Manufacturing Competitive Council (NMCC)
This Body was set up by Govt. of India in the year of 2004 as a part of National Common Minimum Program to help in accelerated growth of GDP, primarily focusing on manufacturing Industry. According to the strategy for National Manufacturing-2006, vocational training plays a key role on this. According to a report by NMCC, if Indian manufacturing has to grow at around 12 percent per annum, it will be necessary for the education and training system to produce at least 1.5 million technically skilled people every year. It is estimated that the country would need an incremental requirement of about 20 million skilled technicians by 2015.
CAPART (Council for Advancement of Rural Technology): CAPART is playing a crucial role in implementing development activities through funding of different voluntary organizations. These voluntary organizations help rural people to enhance livelihood by giving them support through different modes of vocational training and related activities. CAPART has been formed by amalgamating the ‘Council for Advancement of Rural Technology’ (CART) and ‘People’s Action for Development India’ (PADI). CAPART is an autonomous body registered under the Societies Registration Act 1860, under the aegis of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India and it has been a major promoter of rural development in India, assisting over 12,000 voluntary organizations.
Prime Minister’s National Council on Skill Development
Prime Minister as Chairman; Ministers of Finance, HRD, Industries, Rural Development, Labour & Employment and Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation; Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission; Chairperson, National Manufacturing Competitive Council; Chairperson of the National Skill Development Corporation; six experts in the area of Skill Development as Members and Private Secretary to Prime Minister as Member-Secretary.
The National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS)
It has been set up as an advisory body for the informal sector to bring about improvement in the productivity of these enterprises and for generation of large scale employment opportunities on a sustainable basis, particularly in rural areas.