. Important tools which come under Biotechnology are as follows:
Genetic engineering is the process of using recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology to alter the genetic makeup of an organism. Traditionally, humans have manipulated genomes indirectly by controlling breeding and selecting offspring with desired traits. Genetic engineering involves the direct manipulation of one or more genes. Most often, a gene from another species is added to an organism’s genome to give it a desired phenotype.
Tissue culture is a method of biological research in which fragments of tissue from an animal or plant are transferred to an artificial environment in which they can continue to survive and function. The cultured tissue may consist of a single cell, a population of cells, or a whole or part of an organ. Cells in culture may multiply; change size, form, or function; exhibit specialized activity (muscle cells, for example, may contract); or interact with other cells.
In biofiltration, bioscrubbing and biooxidization the biofilter is a bed microorganism filled media. These microorganisms attach themselves and grow to form the biofilm, a biological layer. The biofilm contains a community of various microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, yeast, macro-organisms such as protozoa, worms, insect’s larvae, etc., as well as extracellular polymeric substances (ESP). The texture of the biofilm is often described as slimy and muddy.
Biomining is the process of using microorganisms (microbes) to extract metals of economic interest from rock ores or mine waste. Biomining techniques may also be used to clean up sites that have been polluted with metals.