The Vedic period is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban indus valley civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central gangetic plain which begain in C. 600 BCE. The vedic period is divided into two period one is pre vedic era(c.1500-c.1200 BCE) and the other is late vedic era(i.e. 1100-c.500BCE). On can observe various changes across every walks of life which are summarised below:
- Politically early vedic people had tribal elements which means power was shared by all and democratic elements were present. Later on the elements of state can be seen. I.e. king controlling a territory having an army.
- Socially also people were free and elements of hierarchy were in dormant state. Rules of varna were quite flexible. Later on one can see rigidity in the varna system. Condition of women also got deteriorated, the freedom and power enjoyed by women was not the same.
- Pastoral economy was the key feature of early vedic people. Later on settled agriculture became the prime occupation
- Early vedic people use to worship nature like lord Indra who was god of rain and thunder. Method of worshipping become more complex in the transition. It was filled with sacrifices, ritual oriented and guided by Brahmanical dominance.
Hence, one can observe the changes in political, socio-economical and religious life. The main feature of changes were coming of rigidity, complexity, hierarchy in the society etc.