Lord Cornwallis is usually known as the Father of civil services in India. He had introduced the Covenanted Civil Services and the Uncovenanted Civil Services. The Covenanted Civil Services was created out of the Law of the Company. It was the higher civil services and comprised, almost exclusively, of Europeans who were paid very high salaries.
Until 1853, the Court of Directors had exclusive right to appoint persons in the Company’s civil services. These appointments were a source of privilege and patronage which the Company held on to very tightly.
The Charter Act of 1853 provided for an open competitive examination for recruitment of civil servants and had deprived the Court of Directors of the power of appointments based on patronage. This was recommended by a committee headed by Lord Macaulay. First competitive exam was held in 1855. After the Government of India Act of 1858, the higher civil service in India came to be known as the Indian Civil Services (ICS).
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