Soil erosion : It is the process by which top layer of soil gets removed thus affecting the productivity by altering the structure of the soil. It is a natural process but human intervention has accentuated the rate of depletion of soil wealth.
Soil Degradation: It is a process through which qualitative degradation of soil takes place. The reason for soil degradation are increase in salinity, water logging, toxicity and nutrient imbalance.
Reasons for soil erosion:
- Shrinking vegetal cover is the prime cause by human intervention. The force of agent of erosion increases their activity and thus increasing the rate of soil erosion.
- Urbanisation and population outburst lead to pressure on land .
- Over grazing by livestock.
- Climate change has increased the intensity and frequency of unwanted natural events which sometimes lead to unseasonal rain, cloud burst etc. and hence affecting soil profile.
Solution to prevent soil erosion:
- Ecological approach:
- Managing vegetaion
- Mixed farming
- Crop management
- Planting trees, afforestration
- Organic compost
- Integarted nutrient management
- Structural engineering approach:
- Create mechanical structure like shelter belts, dykes in desert area
- Contour farming
- Terrace farming and bunding
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