Concept of Sustainable Development

Mahatma Gandhi’s principle of “enoughness” in his saying “the earth provides enough to satisfy every persons need but not for every person’s greed” According to World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future (1987) , Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to … Read more Concept of Sustainable Development


Introduction Urban areas have been recognized as “engines of inclusive economic growth”. Of the 121 crore Indians, 83.3 crore live in rural areas while 37.7 crore stay in urban areas, i.e approx 32 % of the population. The census of India, 2011 defines urban settlement as :- All the places which have municipality, corporation, cantonment board … Read more Urbanization

Bio-diversity – Types and Depletion

Biodiversity-Defination, types, importance, hotspots, threats and conservation The term biodiversity was coined as a contraction of biological diversity by E.O. Wilson in 1985. Biodiversity may be defined as the variety and variability of living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they exist. In other words, biodiversity is the occurrence of different types of ecosystems, … Read more Bio-diversity – Types and Depletion

Solar Eclipse

Solar Eclipse A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the sun and the Earth, blocking some or all of the sun’s rays, preventing them from reaching the Earth. The result of this is that the sun appears to be (partially or completely) covered by a giant black circle (which is actually the Moon). … Read more Solar Eclipse


Migration has been defined as crossing of the boundary of a political or administrative unit for a certain minimum period of time. It includes the movements of refugees, displaced persons, uprooted people as well as economic migrants. Internal migration refers to a move from one area (a province, district or municipality) to another within one … Read more Migration

Natural Hazards and Disasters

Natural Hazards and Natural Disasters A natural hazard is a threat of a naturally occurring event will have a negative effect on humans. This negative effect is what we call a natural disaster.  In other words when the hazardous threat actually happens and harms humans, we call the event a natural disaster. Natural Hazards (and … Read more Natural Hazards and Disasters

El-Nino effect and cyclones

El Nino El Niño is the name given to the occasional development of warm ocean surface waters along the coast of Ecuador and Peru. When this warming occurs the usual upwelling of cold, nutrient rich deep ocean water is significantly El Niño normally occurs around Christmasand usually lasts for a few weeks to a few months. Sometimes … Read more El-Nino effect and cyclones

Origin of Continents & Oceans

Introduction to Continents and Ocean Basins Continents and ocean basins being fundamental relief features of the globe are considered as ‘relief features of the first order’. It is, therefore, desirable to inquire into their mode of possible origin and evolu­tion. Different views, concepts, hypotheses and theo­ries regarding the origin of the continents and ocean basins … Read more Origin of Continents & Oceans

Lunar Eclipse

Lunar Eclipse A lunar eclipse happens at a Full Moon, when the Moon’s tilted orbit brings it into the Earth’s shadow, which can then be seen cast onto the Moon. While not as spectacular as a total solar eclipse, a lunar eclipse is much easier to see; and a total lunar eclipse is an amazing … Read more Lunar Eclipse

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