Districts in Uttarakhand 2
Garhwal is the northwestern region and administrative division of the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand which is home to the Garhwali people. Lying in the Himalayas, it is bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Kumaon region, on the south by Uttar Pradesh state, and on the northwest by Himachal Pradesh state. It includes the districts of Chamoli, Dehradun, Haridwar, Pauri Garhwal, Rudraprayag, Tehri Garhwal, and Uttarkashi. The people of Garhwal are known as Garhwali and speak the Garhwali language. The administrative center for Garhwal division is the town of Pauri.
Garhwal is the land of many ‘garh’ or forts. This region was made up of many small forts which were ruled by chieftains. Therefore, the history of Garhwal before the dynastic rule of the ‘Panwar’ rulers is very obscure. Kanak Pal was the first ruler of the state of Garhwal in 823 AD.
The earliest reference regarding Garhwal and its pride spots are cited in the Skanda Purana and the Mahabharata in the Van Parva. Skanda Purana defines the boundaries and extend of this holy land. It also finds mention in the 7th-century travelogue of Huen Tsang. However, it is with Adi Shankaracharya that the name of Garhwal will always be linked, for the great 8th-century spiritual reformer visited the remote, snow-laden heights of Garhwal, established a Joshimath and restored some of the most sacred shrines, including Badrinath and Kedarnath.
Garhwalis are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who primarily inhabit the Garhwal Himalayas. Any person who has ancestral Garhwali roots or lives in Garhwal and has a Garhwali heritage is called a Garhwali. They include all those who speak the Garhwali language or any of its dialects.
The culture of the present Garhwal is an amalgamation of influences from the indigenous population coupled with traditions superimposed by immigrants who settled in the region. A majority of the people are involved in the agriculture, tourism and the defense industry.
The Garhwali language is a Central Pahari language belonging to the Northern Zone of Indo-Aryan and is native to Garhwal.
Garhwali is one of the 325 recognized languages of India, spoken by over 2,267,314 people in Tehri Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Dehradun and Rudraprayag districts of Uttarakhand. Garhwali is also spoken by people in other parts of India including Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
Haridwar district also spelled as Hardwar is a district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is headquartered at Haridwar which is also its largest city. The district is ringed by the districts Dehradun in the north and east, Pauri Garhwal in the east and the Uttar Pradesh districts of Muzaffarnagar and Bijnor in the south and Saharanpur in the west. A paradise for nature lovers and one of the seven holiest places of Hinduism, Haridwar presents a kaleidoscope of Indian culture and civilisation.
Haridwara district, covering an area of about 2,360 km², is in the southwestern part of Uttarakhand state of India. Its latitude and longitude are 29.96-degree north and 78.16-degree east respectively
The river Ganges flows through it in a series of channels separated from each other called aits, most of which are well wooded. Other minor seasonal streams are Ranipur Rao, Pathri Rao, Rawii Rao, Harnaui Rao, Begam Nadi etc. A large part of the district is forested.
The wooded Rajaji National Park, a wildlife sanctuary, is within the bounds of the district and is accessible through different gates; Ranipur and Chilla Gates are just about 9 km from Haridwar. It is an ideal destination for wildlife and adventure lovers. Sureshvari Devi Mandir, a temple of Goddess Sureshwari, is situated in the midst of Rajaji National Park. Cheela Dam is a picnic spot with a dam and a man-made lake nearby; elephants and other wild animals could be easily spotted here. Neel Dhara Pakshi Vihar is a bird sanctuary, situated on the main Ganges river, or Neel Dhara, at the Bhimgoda Barrage; it is a paradise for bird watchers and home to many migratory birds during the winter season.
According to the 2011 census Haridwar district has a population of 1,927,029, roughly equal to the nation of Lesotho or the US state of West Virginia. This gives it a ranking of 244th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 817 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,120/sq mi) .Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 33.16%. Haridwar has a sex ratio of 879 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 74.62%
The district has a single Parliament Constituency, and 11 Uttarakhand State Legislative Assembly constituencies including, Haridwar, Haridwar Rural, BHEL Ranipur, Jwalapur, Bhagwanpur, Roorkee, Piran Kaliyar, Khanpur, Manglaur Laksar and Jhabrera.
Current Member of Parliament (MP) from Haridwar (Lok Sabha constituency) is Nishank Pokhriyal, and Member of Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly from Haridwar City is ‘Madan Kaushik’
Being a place of intense religious significance, Haridwar also hosts several religious festivals throughout the year; popular among them are the Kavad Mela, Somvati Amavasya Mela, Ganga Dashara, Gughal Mela,in which around 2–2.5 million people take part.
Apart from these, there is the mammoth Kumbh Mela which takes place once in every twelve years, when the planet Jupiter (Brihaspati) comes into the sign Aquarius (Kumbha). First written evidence of the Kumbha Mela can be found in the accounts of Chinese traveller Huan Tsang or Xuanzang (602 – 664 A.D.), who visited India in 629 AD.The 1998 Maha Kumbh Mela saw over 80 million pilgrims visiting this city, to take a dip in the holy river Ganges.
Nainital district is a district of Uttarakhand state, India. The headquarters is at Nainital.
Nainital District is located in Kumaon Division, and is bounded on the north by the Almora District and on the south by the Udham Singh Nagar District. Haldwani is the largest town in the district.
According to the 2011 census Nainital district has a population of 955,128. This gives it a ranking of 457th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 225 inhabitants per square kilometre (580/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 25.2%. Nainital has a sex ratio of 933 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 84.85%.
As of 2001 Indian census, the Nainital district had a population of 762,909, including 655,290 Hindus, 86,532 Muslims, and 16,107 Sikhs.
Pithoragarh district is the easternmost Himalayan district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is naturally landscaped with high Himalayan mountains, snow-capped peaks, passes, valleys, alpine meadows, forests, waterfalls, perennial rivers, glaciers, and springs. The flora and fauna of the area have rich ecological diversity. Pithoragarh has many temples and ruined forts from the once flourishing reign of the warrior Chand Kingdom.
Some attribute the name to King Pithora Chand from the Chand Dynasty, while others cite Prithvi Raj Chauhan of the Chauhan Rajputs, who built a fort named Pithora Garh in the Saur Valley.
After its conquest by Bhartpal, the Rajwar of Uku (now in Nepal), in the year 1364, Pithoragarh was ruled for the rest of the 14th century by three generations of Pals, and the kingdom extended from Pithoragarh to Askot.
According to a tamrapatra (inscribed copper or brass plaque) from 1420, the Pal dynasty, based out of Askot, was uprooted by Chand kings. Vijay Brahm (of the Brahm dynasty from Doti) took over the empire as King. Following the death of Gyan Chand, in a conflict with Kshetra Pal, the Pals were able to regain the throne.
British rule began on 2 December 1815 when Nepal was forced to sign the Sugauli Treaty. Pithoragarh remained a tehsil under Almora district until 1960 when its status was elevated to that of a district. There was an army cantonment, a church, and a mission school, resulting in the spread of Christianity in the region.
Kumaoni, with its numerous variations, is the most widely spoken language. The language is written in Devanagari script. The Bhotiya tribe speak a dialect called Beyansi (also known as Bhotia or Hunia), which is a language of the Tibeto-Burman family. The Van Rawat tribe speaks their own unique Kumaoni variant.
There are several Sino-Tibetan languages of the West Himalayish branch are spoken in Pithoragarh district. These include the Rawat language, Darmiya language, Chaudangsi language, and Byangsi language. The Rangas language was formerly spoken in Pithoragarh district and is now extinct.
Pithoragarh town, being in a valley, is relatively warm during summer and cool during winter. During the coldest months of December and January, the tropical and temperate mountain ridges and high locations receive snowfall and have an average temperature of 5.5–8.0 °C (41.9–46.4 °F). Pithoragarh district has extreme variation in temperature due to the large variations in altitude. The temperature rises from mid-March through mid-June. The areas above 3,500 metres (11,500 ft) remain in a permanent snow cover. Regions lying at 3,000–3,500 metres (9,800–11,500 ft) become snowbound for four to six months. At places like the river gorges at Dharchula, Jhulaghat, Ghat and Sera, temperatures reach 40 °C (104 °F). The annual average rainfall is 36.7 centimetres (14.4 in).. ISBN 8170998980. Missing or empty |title= (help) After June the district receives monsoon showers. Winter is a time for transhumance – the seasonal migration of the Bhotiya tribe with their herds of livestock to lower, warmer areas.
Rudraprayag district,is a district of Uttarakhand state of northern India. The district occupies an area of 2439 km². Rudraprayag town is the administrative headquarters of the district. The district is bounded by Uttarkashi District on the north, Chamoli District on the east, Pauri Garhwal District on the south, and Tehri Garhwal District on the south.
According to the 2011 census Rudraprayag district has a population of 236,857, roughly equal to the nation of Vanuatu. This gives it a ranking of 585th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 119 inhabitants per square kilometre (310/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 4.14%. Rudraprayag has a sex ratio of 1120 females for every 1000 males, making it the 6th highest in the country as per 2011 census, second being Almora that too in uttarakhand, and a literacy rate of 82.09%.
Tehri Garhwal is one of the largest districts in the hill state of Uttarakhand, India. Its administrative headquarters is at New Tehri. The district has a population of 604,747 (2001 census), a 16.15% increase over the previous decade. It is surrounded by Rudraprayag District in the east, Dehradun District in the west, Uttarkashi District in the north, and Pauri Garhwal District in the south.
The name Tehri has been derived from Trihari, signifying a place that washes away the three types of sins – sins born out of Mansa, Vacha and Karmana or thought, word and deed, respectively. Garh in Hindi means fort.
Prior to 888 AD, the region was divided into 52 garhs which were ruled by independent kings. These garhs were brought into one province by Kanakpal, the prince of Malwa. Kanakpal, on his visit to Badrinath, had met the then mightiest king Bhanu Pratap who later married his only daughter to the prince and handed over his kingdom to him. Kanakpal singh and his descendants gradually conquered all the garhs and ruled the whole of Garhwal Kingdom for the next 915 years, up to 1803.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Tehri Garhwal one of the country’s 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the three districts in Uttaranchal currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
Dry season crops include wheat, barley, masoor, bengal and red gram, rape seed and mustard, and pea. Wet season crops include rice, barnyard millet, finger millet, black gram, sesame and soybean. Various fruits and spices grow in the district also
Udham Singh Nagar
Udham Singh Nagar district is a district of Uttarakhand state in northern India. Rudrapur is the district headquarters. This district consists of seven Tehsils named Bajpur, Gadarpur, Jaspur, Kashipur, Kichha, Khatima, Sitarganj. The district is located in the Terai region, and is part of Kumaon Division. It is bounded on the north by Nainital District, on the northeast by Champawat District, on the east by Nepal, and on the south and west by Uttar Pradesh state. The district was created in October 1995 by Mayawati government out of Nainital District, and is named for freedom fighter Indian revolutionary Shaheed-i-Azam Sardar Udham Singh.
As of 2011 it is the third most populous district of Uttarakhand (out of 13), after Haridwar and Dehradun.
G.B. Pant University, noted for its engineers & agriculture scientists, is located 5 km from Rudrapur.
According to the 2011 census Udham Singh Nagar district has a population of 1,648,367, roughly equal to the nation of Guinea-Bissau or the US state of Idaho. This gives it a ranking of 303rd in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 648 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,680/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 33.4%. Udham Singh Nagar has a sex ratio of 919 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 74.44%
Uttarkashi District is a district of Garhwal division of the Uttarakhand state in northern India, and has its headquarters at Uttarkashi city. It has six Tehsils named after Badkot, Bhatwadi, Chinyali Sour, Dunda, Purola, Mori.
Uttarkashi District town lies high in the Himalaya range, and the district contains the source of both the Ganges and Yamuna rivers, which attract thousands of Hindu pilgrims. The town lies on the main route to Gangotri, has many Hindu temples, and is also considered an important Hindu pilgrimage centre. The district is bounded on the north by Himachal Pradesh state, on the northeast by Tibet, on the east by Chamoli District, on the southeast by Rudraprayag District, on the south by Tehri Garhwal District, and on the west by Dehradun District.
According to the 2011 census Uttarkashi district has a population of 329,686, roughly equal to the nation of Belize. This gives it a ranking of 567th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 41 inhabitants per square kilometre (110/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 11.75%. Uttarkashi has a sex ratio of 959 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 75.98%.