Mangroves are the characteristic littoral plant formation of tropical and subtropical sheltered coastlines.

are trees and bushes growing below the high water level of spring tides which exhibits remarkable capacity for salt water tolerance.

basically evergreen land plants growing on sheltered shores, typically on tidal flats, deltas, estuaries, bays, creeks and the barrier islands. require high solar radiation and have the ability to absorb fresh water from saline/ brackish water. produces pneumatophores (blind roots) to overcome respiration problem in the anaerobic soil conditions

  • Leaves are thick and contain salt secreting glands.
  • exhibit viviparity mode of reproduction. i.e. SeedS germinate in the tree itself (before falling to the ground). This is an adaptative medianiSintoovercome the problem of germination in Saline water.
  • crystals of salt on the back of the leaves; others block absorption of salt at their roots

The mangroves of Sundarbans are the largest single block of tidal holophytic mangroves of the world. famous for the Royal Bengal Tiger and crocodiles.

The mangroves of Bhitarkanika (Orissa), which is the second largest in the Indian sub continent, harbour high concentration of typical mangrove species and high genetic diversity have (additional) special roots such as prop roots, pneumatophores  which help to impede water flow and thereby enhance the deposition of sediment in areas (where it is already occurring), stabilize the coastal shores, provide breeding ground for fishes. protects coastal lands from tsunami, hurricanes:and floods release oxygen back to the atmosphere, along with a little methane gas

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