- Communalism is the belief that because a group of people follow a particular religion they have, as a result, common secular, that is, social, political and economic interests.
- Second stage: Secular interests of followers of one religion are dissimilar and divergent from the interests of the followers of another religion
- Third stage: The interests of the followers of different religions or of different religious communities are seen to be mutually incompatible, antagonistic and hostile.
- Communalism is not a remnant of the medieval period. It has its roots in the modern colonial socio-economic political structure.
- Divide and Rule
- After 1857, British initially suppressed Indian muslims. However, after the publishing of Hunter’s book ‘The Indian Mussalman’ they actively followed the policy of divide and rule and hence started supporting the Muslims.
- They promoted provincialism by talking of Bengal domination
- Tired to use the caste structure to turn the non-brahmins against Brahmins and the lower caste against the higher castes.
- It readily accepted communal leaders as authentic representatives of all their co-religionists.
- Reasons for growth of communal tendencies in Muslims
- Relative backwardness: educationally and economically <incomplete>
- 1906 by Aga Khan, the Nawab of Dhaka, and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk
- It made no critique of colonialism, supported the partition of Bengal and demanded special safeguards for the Muslims in government services.
- ML’s political activities were directed not against the foreign rulers but against the Hindus and the INC.
- Their activities were not supported by all Muslims
- Arhar movement was founded at this time under the leadership of Maulana Mohamed Ali, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Hasan Imam, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, and Mazhar-ul-Haq. They advocated participation in the militant nationalist movement.
- The war between Ottoman Empire and Italy created a wave of sympathy for Turkey
- During the war between Ottoman empire and Italy, India sent a medical mission headed by MA Ansari to help Turkey.
- As the British were not sympathetic to Turkey, the pro-Caliph sentiments in India became anti-British
- However, the militant nationalists among muslims did not accept an entirely secular approach to politics
- The most important issue they took up was not political independence but protection of the Turkish empire.
- This approach did not immediately clash with Indian nationalism. However, in the long run it proved harmful as it encouraged the habit of looking at political questions from a religious view point.
- Some Hindus accepted the colonial view of Indian history and talked about the tyrannical Muslim rule in the medieval period
- Over language they said that Hindi was the language of Hindus and Urdu that of Muslims.
- Punjab Hindu Sabha was founded in 1909. Its leaders attached the INC for trying to unite Indians into a single nation.
- The first session of the All India Hindu Mahasabha was held in April 1915 under the presidentship of the Maharaja of Kasim Bazar.
It however remained a weak organization because the colonial government gave it few concessions and little support
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