Magnetic effect of current

Magnetic effect of current

Magnetic effect of electric current is one of the major effects which functions as the basic principle in appliances used in various fields of activities. The magnetic field around a current carrying conductor can be depicted by using magnetic field lines which are represented in the form of concentric circles around it. The direction of magnetic field through a current carrying conductor is determined by the direction of flow of electric current.

Magnetic effect of electric current is one of the major effects which functions as the basic principle in appliances used in various fields of activities. The magnetic field around a current carrying conductor can be depicted by using magnetic field lines which are represented in the form of concentric circles around it. The direction of magnetic field through a current carrying conductor is determined by the direction of flow of electric current.

The Right Hand Thumb Rule also known as Maxwell’s Corkscrew Rule is known to determine the direction of magnetic field in relation to direction of electric current through a straight conductor. As the direction of the electric current changes, the direction of the magnetic field also gets reversed. If the direction of electric current in a vertically suspended current carrying conductor is from south to north, the magnetic field will be in the anticlockwise direction. If the current is flowing from north to south, the direction of magnetic field will be clockwise. If a current carrying conductor is held by right hand; keeping the thumb straight and if the direction of electric current is in the direction of thumb, then the direction of folding of other fingers will show the direction of magnetic field. Magnitude of magnetic field is directly proportional to the number of turns of coil. If there are ‘n’ turns of coil, magnitude of magnetic field will be ‘n’ times of magnetic field in case of a single turn of coil.

Oersted’s Experiment

Hans Christian Oersted was a Danish scientist who explored the relationship between electric current and magnetism. Current is the flow of electrons, and is how we hardness electricity. Currents create their own magnetic fields in closed loops, which magnets are known to induce, or create current, in wires.

Oersted experimented with this, using a compass, which uses the magnetic poles of the Earth to show your which direction you are facing. By bringing the compass near a closed current loop, he was able to interfere with the magnetic field and cause the compass needle to move.

Procedure

  • Cut a 1 meter loop of insulated wire.
  • Use electrical tape to secure a stripped end of the wire to one side of a D battery.
  • Run the wire up one side of the box, across the top, and down the other side. Make sure you have enough wire so that itcan run along the table or ground to reconnect the battery. Now you have a loop.
  • Connect the other open end of the wire to the battery so current begins to flow.
  • Bring the compass into the center of the loop.
  • Move the compass around closer to the wire and away from the wire. Record your observations.

Observation and result

The wire will carry a current that creates a magnetic field around itself. Bringing the compass near the wire or in the loop will cause the compass needle to move.

The current will induce a magnetic field based on the right-handrule. Make a “thumbs-up” sign with your right hand. The thumb will be the direction of the current (flowing from the negative to positive terminal of the battery) and the fingers will curve around in the direction of the magnetic field.  The magnetic field created by the current will interfere with the magnetic field the compass experiences when it is brought near enough.

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