The Revolutions of 1989 were part of a revolutionary wave that resulted in the Fall of Communism in the Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. The period is sometimes called the Autumn of Nations. There were many revolutions in the period 1989 to 1992, against the existing communist governments in Europe.
There were mass protests, many communist governments started to fall in countries like Poland, Hungary etc (1989). Revolutions in East Germany resulted in the fall of Berlin Wall in 1989 November. Revolutions didn’t end there, it went on disintegrating the mighty USSR (1991).
Anti-communist movements in the period 1989-1992 in many nations – Poland, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Russia and even China – toppled many of the authoritarian regimes in Europe, establishing capitalist, liberal democracies. Most of the mass movements were non-violent. Romania was an exemption. The anti-communist movements gained success in most countries, but it was suppressed in China.
- Peaceful transfer of power to non-Communist governments in Poland, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Albania.
- German reunification: East Germany with West Germany.
- Violent transfer of power to a non-Communist government in Romania.
- Breakup of the Soviet Union. End of the Soviet Union as a superpower. Formation of the Russian Federation.
UKPCS Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for UKPCS Prelims and UKPCS Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by UKPCS Notes are as follows:-
- UKPCS Mains Tests and Notes Program
- UKPCS Prelims Exam 2022- Test Series and Notes Program
- UKPCS Prelims and Mains Tests Series and Notes Program
- UKPCS Detailed Complete Prelims Notes