DMPQ: Moderates and extremist were two exponents of Indian National movement. What were the major differences between Moderates and Extremist? ( history)



  1. Extremists aimed at nothing short of swaraj as it existed in the United Kingdom and its self-governing colonies. Tilak said, “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it”. Moderates aimed at administrative and constitutional reforms.
  2. Extremists wanted to end the British rule. Moderates wanted more Indians in the administration and not to an end of British rule.
  3. Extremist denounced British rule and defied it. Many of them(Extremists) Were arrested because of anti-British activities. Most of the moderate leaders were loyal to British. Many of them held high ranks under the British government.
  4. Extremist were radical in their approach. Demands of extremists were aggressive. Moderates believed in constitutional means and worked within the framework of the law. Their methods including passing resolutions, persuasion, sending petitions and appeals.
  5. Extremists believed in militant methods including swadeshi and boycott. According to Tilak, freedom to be fought for. Moderates believed in cooperation and reconciliation.
  6. Extremists believed in atma shakti or self-reliance as a weapon against domination. Moderates received their support from the intelligentsia and urban middle class. Moderates had a narrow social base.
  7. Extremist drew their supporters included peoples from all sections including the lower middle class, workers, and farmers. Extremists thus had a wider social base. Moderate leaders had faith in the British sense of justice and fair play.
  8. Extremist rejected British rule and held it responsible for the backwardness and poverty of the Indian people. Most of the moderate leaders were inspired by the ideas of western philosophers like Mill, Burke, Spencer, and Bentham. Moderates imbibed western ideas of liberalism, democracy, equity, and freedom.
  9. Extremists drew their inspiration from India’s past. Extremists revived the Ganapati and Sivaji festivals to arouse the masses. Extremists wanted to inculcate pride in India’s glorious culture to generate the spirit of nationalism. Extremists invoked goddesses Kali or Durga for strength to fight for the motherland. Moderates Believed political connections with Britain to be in India’s social, political and cultural interests.
  10. Examples of extremist leaders- Bala Gangadhara Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai, Aurobindo Ghosh. Examples of moderate leaders-Dadabhai Naoroji, Gopal Krishna Gokhale etc.



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