dmpq-Discuss the cultural, economic and political factors which led to the decolonization of African Continent .

It was the cultural, economic and political process through which colonies broke free from the colonial empires and integrated themselves to the new ‘world order’.


  • Colonial empires were generally founded on principles of Racism and ‘right to rule’ over ‘inferior races’. These narratives had to be challenged.
  • An image of benevolent and modernising influence was used as a pretext for colonial exploitation. However, this was later broken. (Eg: Indian National Congress popularised the theory of drain of wealth to demolish the claim of the civilising influence of British Raj).
  • The self-confidence of people had to be boosted. Exercises of cultural integration and the creation of national identities and a shared past were emphasised. Eg: Ancient Greek (Hellenistic) culture was emphasised in the Greek War of Independence, 1829 against the Ottoman Empire. In India, achievements of our ancient civilisation were popularised.


  • Newly freed states had to be allowed to follow an independent foreign policy. They had to raise resources and build stable institutions (Eg: An Army subject to strict civilian control).
  • Representative and democratic institutions needed to be built. This needed an enlightened citizenry and an empowered leadership.


  • The old European powers sought to exert influence in newly independent trades through biased trade policies. This came to be known as Neo-Colonialism.
  • Most of the investment in these countries came from the erstwhile colonizers. So they were able to control new governments through lobbying and other informal (often corrupt) means.
  • Colonial powers were technologically advanced. So they used it as a leverage in directing foreign investment and hence controlling the new states. They sought to guard their technological supremacy through tight Intellectual property regimes.


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